Pickled cucumbers (or gherkin) are cucumbers that have been pickled in either brine or vinegar. Pickles are made with smaller varieties of cucumbers, such as Gherkins, kirby cucumbers and persian cucumbers.
To make pickles, clean jars with soap (use wide-mouth jars) thoroughly then sterilize the jars. Choose healthy cucumbers, without defects or spots. Scrub them under running water with a brush. Fill jar with cucumbers, add garlic cloves, black peppercorns, dried dill and slices of horsedish. In a big pot, bring vinegar to a boil with some salt and sugar. Add bay leaves, thyme and mustard seeds. Reduce heat, and let simmer for 2-3 minutes. Pour hot liquid over cucumbers, seal jars and store in a cool place for 3-6 weeks. Jars can last 1-2 years.
As a basic rule, for each gallon of vinegar 5 % acidity, add 4 tablespoons of salt(make sure the salt is for pickles with no iodine added to it) and 2 tablespoons granulated sugar. OR, for each liter of vinegar add 1 tablespoon salt, in case you plan to can a smaller amount of cucumbers (ref).
There are many varieties of cucumbers, but the 3 main are: slicing, pickling and seedless. Cucumbers are 95 percent water, making them a low-energy food.