Sugar is a generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates. Natural brown sugars that have been highly centrifuged go by the names of turbinado, demeara or raw sugar. Others that have been midly centrifuged and that have a higher molasses content go by Panela, rapadura, jaggery, muscovado etc. Powdered sugar is available in different degrees of fineness, the more X's the finer the grain.
The average person consumes about 24kg of sugar per year, which is about 260 calories per day. Sugar is not essential to good health, and should be eaten sparingly.